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Everything You Need To Know About Diabetes

Everything You Need To Know About Diabetes

Do you people know what happens to the food we eat? 

As the food we eat goes into the body, it gets converted into sugar/glucose. Then, this sugar flows into our bloodstream. If the overall sugar level in the blood increases, it prompts the pancreas to produce and transfer insulin into the bloodstream and normalize sugar levels.

Process: 

Food consumed ➡️ Passes into the body ➡️ Converts to glucose ➡️ Goes into bloodstream ➡️ Higher level of glucose in blood results ➡️ Signals pancreas to release insulin ➡️ Insulin normalizes blood sugar level 

What is Diabetes? 

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health condition where the human body either fails to respond to insulin or fails to produce enough of it. 

Types of Diabetes: 

Diabetes has three major types, which are described below. 

1- Type 1 diabetes: This type of diabetes is very common in children; however, it can also occur at any age. In this type, insulin production in the body is very low, or close to none in some cases. 

2- Type 2 diabetes: This type is more commonly occurring in people of adult age. Majority of diabetic patients have type 2 diabetes. In this type, the human body fails to make use of the insulin produced by the pancreas. 

3- Gestational Diabetes: In this type of diabetes, blood sugar level increases significantly during pregnancy, and most likely vanishes after delivery of the baby. This type of diabetes is linked with health issues and complications related both the mother and child. 

What are the symptoms of Diabetes? 

Types of Diabetes 

Symptoms Associated with the Type 

Type 1 Diabetes 

Smell of acetone in breath (fruity breath), frequent urination, anxiety, confusion, weight loss and blurred vision.

Type 2 Diabetes 

Dryness in mouth, headaches, weight loss, excess thirst, extreme and persistent hunger. 

Gestational Diabetes 

Dryness in mouth, excess thirst, and feelings of lethargy and tiredness 

 

Diagnosis of Diabetes: 

Three tests are commonly performed in order to diagnose diabetes. 

1- Fasting Glucose Test: This test is done after the patient fasts for an overnight period; if their glucose level is 99 mg/dl or less afterwards, then it is considered normal. 

2- Random Glucose Test: If the glucose level in the blood is between 80-140 mg/dl at any given point in time, then it is considered normal. 

3- HbA1c Test: 4% to 5.6% is the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c test. 

Risk Factors Associated with Diabetes: 

Type 1 Diabetes 

  • Geography: Certain countries have higher cases of type 1 diabetes.
  • Family History: If any of your parents or siblings has this type of diabetes, it increases the risk for you acquiring it as well. 
  • Environmental factors: Some viral illnesses also cause this type of diabetes. 
  • Autoantibodies: If you have cells of the immune system that are self-harmful, and damaging, it can enhance the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, however, this condition is not necessary. 

Type 2 Diabetes

  • Age: As age increases, risk of getting type 2 diabetes also increases, This may be because of weight gain and less body movement as people get older. 
  • Family History: Same as in type 2 diabetes, if any of your parents or siblings has this type of diabetes, you are more likely to develop it. 
  • High Blood Pressure: If your blood pressure tends to remain on the higher side, than the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. 
  • Cholesterol levels: We have two types of cholesterol in our body, one is HDL which is good cholesterol and the other is LDL which is bad cholesterol. 

IF ⬆️ Bad cholesterol and ⬇️ Good cholesterol ➡️ Type 2 Diabetes

  • PCOS: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in women increases risk of diabetes. PCOS is a condition with irregular menstrual cycles leading to many other hormonal disbalances. 
  • Increased weight: People with excess weight and body fat are more likely to develop diabetes because they will have hindrances in insulin absorption due to the increased fatty layers in their body tissues. 

Gestational Diabetes

  • Overweight: Women who have increased weight before pregnancy are more prone to developing diabetes. 
  • Age: Women at and above 25 years of age are at higher risk. 
  • Previous History: If any of your parents or siblings is diabetic or if are already suffering from pre-diabetes then the chances become higher for you to have gestational diabetes. 

Which is the most harmful type of diabetes? 

Type 2 Diabetes is considered most harmful as it has a higher possibility of further complications. For example, people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to suffer from heart diseases. 

What is the treatment of Diabetes? 

 

Types of Diabetes 

Treatment with Medicines

Type 1 Diabetes 

Short-acting insulin (Humulin R), 

Long-acting insulin (Glargine), 

Intermediate-acting insulin (Humulin N), 

Rapid-acting insulin (Glulisine) etc. 

Aspirin (Ascard), 

Antilipidemic (Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin etc.) 

ARBs (Valsartan, Candesartan etc.) 

ACE inhibitors (Enalapril, Captopril etc.) 

Type 2 Diabetes 

Insulins (A/c to type prescribed by the doctor) 

Biguanides (Metformin), 

Sulfonylureas (Glipizide, Tolbutamide etc), 

Glitazones (Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone etc). 

Gestational Diabetes 

Fast-acting, intermediate-acting or long-acting insulins, 

Biguanides (Metformin). 

 

All the above medicines should only be used when prescribed by the doctor. 

 

Management of Diabetes: 

Diabetes can be managed by: 

  • First of all, taking all your medicines on time and as prescribed by the doctor. 
  • Trying to maintain your blood sugar levels at or near normal ranges.
  • Improving your diet; eat foods that are low in calories and fats. 
  • Increasing your physical activity and overall body movement by exercising and taking daily walks. 
  • Trying to increase good cholesterol level by eating dry fruits like walnuts, and decreasing your bad cholesterol by cutting down the excessive fat from your diet. 
  • Keeping your blood pressure in controlled limits. 
  • Routinely checking on your blood glucose levels. 
  • Not missing any checkups with your doctor. 
  • If you are overweight, trying to lose weight by eating healthy and exercising regularly. Try to add vegetables and fruits in your diet. 
  • Not consuming white sugar and artificial flavors at all. 
  • If you are a smoker, quitting smoking as it may lead to many other dangerous diseases as well as exacerbating diabetes. 
  • Keeping something sweet with you at all times, in the case your sugar level goes below normal range. 
  • Having complete information about the disease. 

Managing Diabetes Through Home Remedies: 

  • Adding fenugreek (methi dana) in your daily cooking is very effective in keeping your sugar level in ranges. 
  • Drinking aloe vera juice or eating 2 to 3 tablespoons full of aloe vera gel is ideal for diabetic patients. 
  • Intake of small amounts of cinnamon daily is said to reduce bad cholesterol level and prevent other diseases associated with diabetes. 

Note: follow these remedies after consultation with your doctor or pharmacist. 

 

To conclude, if you or any of your friends or family members are suffering from diabetes, please remember it is nothing to be worried about or ashamed of. You can easily manage diabetes by keeping all the above points in mind. We wish you the best of luck! 

 

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